Pathogens that cause sexually transmitted diseases STDs are sensitive to temperature changes and drying. Consequently, the pathogens require direct intimate contact for successful transmission. Although sexually transmitted pathogens are not as easily spread as respiratory pathogens, STDs are still widespread and common. Escherichia coli , the most common pathogen causing urinary tract infections, has flagella that allow it to swim up the urethra into the bladder, where it can lodge and lead to infection.
College students are among the highest-risk groups for sexually transmitted diseases. The majority of these infections were by serotypes of Human papillomavirus HPV associated with a high risk for developing cervical cancer.
Elsevier's Integrated Review Immunology and Microbiology (Second Edition) | ScienceDirect
This chapter emphasizes the widespread and cross-cultural nature of STDs and the difficulties of prevention. Penicillinase is an enzyme produced by most bacteria that are resistant to penicillins. In theory, the prevention of STDs appears simple. However, determining effective strategies for changing sexual behavior and the politics of providing treatment and prevention resources make the real world of STD management both challenging and interesting. The chapter talks about selected outbreak-causing sexually transmitted pathogens and about various outbreaks of STDs, including chancroid, gonorrhea, cervical cancer, and lymphogranuloma venereum.
A section is dedicated to reference material for pathogens and diseases that are transmitted sexually. Each outbreak is explained in detail and concludes with questions and student activity. The skin is an effective barrier to prevent microbes from infecting underlying tissues.
In outbreaks, the integrity of the skin is typically compromised by trauma or by medical procedures, surgery or needle sticks. Microbes that infect the skin attach to the epithelium or to tissues in hair follicles or glands of the skin.
This section presents a variety of outbreaks of infection by viral and bacterial pathogens. Community-acquired infections of skin, blood, and connective tissue are common. The challenges in prevention of future outbreaks lie in identifying the source of infection, revising procedures, and implementing appropriate quality assurance for compliance.
A table illustrates selected outbreak-causing pathogens of skin, soft tissues, and blood. A sub-section is devoted to reference material for pathogens and diseases of the skin, eyes, and deep tissues.
The section discusses various outbreaks, including those of Staphylococcus aureus , pseudomonas Dermatitis, gas gangrene, and conjunctivitis. Each outbreak is discussed and information concludes with questions and student activity. Prevention of zoonoses requires separating the human population from the animal disease reservoir.
As populations continue to grow and human habitation pushes into more and more natural environments, exposure to rodents and other wild animals increases. In urban areas with limited public services, accumulation of waste provides rodents with food and habitats, leading to zoonotic disease outbreaks. Vector-borne diseases are prevented by controlling the population of insects or other arthropod vectors that transmit the disease.
Worldwide, the lack of resources devoted to public health in many underdeveloped countries has resulted in several vector-borne diseases being among the top 10 killers. Ebola virus , Yersinia pestis , Bacillus anthracis , Francisella tularensis , and Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin are all category A biological agents—those that are considered the most dangerous potential bioweapons. Outbreaks of these pathogens may indicate the intentional release of a bioterrorism agent and must be thoroughly investigated.
A section is dedicated to reference material for outbreak-causing multisystem zoonotic and vector-borne pathogens. The chapter talks about various outbreaks, including typhus, encephalitis, yellow fever, and leptospirosis. Each outbreak is explained in detail and the information concludes with questions and student activity.
Microbes that infect the central nervous system CNS have several strategies to bypass host defenses.
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia. Neisseria meningitis can live in nasal mucosa. Both bacteria can cause pharyngitis. The consequences of a microbial infection of the CNS are serious. In a college setting, the most common CNS pathogen is meningitis, causing microbes that are spread as respiratory pathogens. This section emphasizes the importance of rapid treatment and prevention strategies to decrease the spread of infections that can be lethal. Selected outbreak-causing pathogens of the nervous system are illustrated in a table in this chapter.
A section is devoted for reference material for diseases and pathogens of the central nervous system. The chapter discusses various outbreaks of diseases of the CNS, including flaccid paralysis, tetanus, and mad cow disease.
Details of each outbreak conclude with questions and student activity. This section presents outbreaks in which preventing the spread of pathogens required an environmentally related solution. In addition, cases that allow students to investigate the microbes responsible for environmental damage are presented. Public recreational waters, such as pools and interactive fountains, can have design flaws or equipment failures that lead to contamination by fecal pathogens and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases.
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Some large buildings are cooled by air-conditioning systems that use cooling towers. If the water is contaminated with Legionella and some of the water leaks into the duct work, Legionella can be aerosolized throughout the facility, causing a large outbreak among susceptible individuals. A table illustrates microbes associated with environmentally related microbiological issues. A part of this section is devoted to reference material microbes that cause environmental and industrial problems.
The section discusses various outbreaks, including gastrointestinal illness, dengue fever, acid pollution, Shigellosis , and Cryptosporidium. Study Guide Microbiology. Go over card for corporation lists 2. Microbiology has had a long, rich history, initially centered in the causes of infectious diseases but now including practical applications of the science. Microbial Biology Major Program, Undergraduate. This is not intended to be the sole source of your studies. List five functions of the skeleton: 2. This Website is designed to: Provide you with study aids to prepare for your class.
CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. Flashcards created for the book Microbiology: An Introduction. What are the types of microorganisms are studied in microbiology? Louis Pasteur and the germ theory.
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