Your job is to figure out and describe, explain, and interpret those decisions and why the artist may have made them. Here are a couple of options:. Some instructors want your formal analysis to consist of pure description with little or no interpretation. In this case, you should just describe your object. Others will expect you to go further and comment on the significance of what you have observed. Find out which way your instructor wants you to write your formal analysis in your particular assignment.
Most art historians include formal analysis at some point in their essays, so there are a lot of examples to look at in the textbook and other readings, but you will probably have to be more in-depth than they are. You may be asked to look at an object and talk about style. Some instructors will want you to discuss how an object fits into a particular stylistic category—for example, Impressionism, Renaissance, or early Macedonian. More often, they will ask you to compare two works in either the same or very different stylistic categories—e.
You will still focus on the formal qualities of the objects, but this time you will probably be expected to make a conclusion about one of the following:. A stylistic analysis will acquaint you with some of the larger historical trends and forces in the culture and how they influenced the development of art.
This kind of assignment occurs in courses covering art before the Modern period. Here you will look for a particular element that occurs in the object an object, action, gesture, pose and explain either:. For example, there have been thousands of paintings of Hercules choosing between Virtue and Vice. You do not have to focus on the actual making of the object here, but instead on the way the subject is represented: Carracci has Virtue and Vice in Ancient clothing, but Veronese shows them in contemporary Venetian costumes. Then, you might have to say what that means: Carracci spent a lot of time in Rome looking at Ancient art, so he was interested in using Ancient art works as models in his paintings, but Veronese was showing off one of the main industries of Venice textiles —or, Veronese wanted his patrons to think about how they might fit into the scenario instead of keeping the story in the past.
Art historians study iconography and iconology so often that they have compiled reference texts that list many of the famous works that show particular themes—you might use these as a resource, so ask the art librarian about them. These assignments focus on either:.
The assignment may also ask you to comment on the significance of this history. All four of the previous assignment types focus on the object itself the painting, sculpture, drawing, or building. However, in some courses, particularly in Modern Art courses, you may be asked to look beyond or through the object toward theoretical, historical, or social contexts of the object, artist, or time period.
Instructors may want you to talk about how the formal or stylistic qualities of the object reflect or affect the time in which they were made. As you can see, these assignments may leave you a fair amount of latitude in finding and pursuing a topic. The theory or criticism should arise out of the art, rather than be superimposed on it. A good way to keep your focus on the object is to write a formal analysis before getting into the theory; you may not include this analysis in your final paper, but writing it will give you insight into the object or objects you are discussing. You may also wish to keep an image of the object or objects in view as you write.
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After you analyze what type of assignment you have been given, you will need to review resources that will help you to answer that type of question. You may have to find any or all of the following books or materials:. The more theoretical the assignment, the more time you will spend reading journal articles and sometimes indirectly related books. Instead, suggest what those differences or similarities mean and analyze them on some level. Several books have been written specifically to help you write a paper in art history.
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All are pretty widely available, so check your library and local bookstores:. If you need more examples of how art history can be done, read articles in Art Bulletin or Art Journal or one of the many other journals available in the field. The list of sources cited in the bibliography of your textbook if you have one may provide another way to understand the various approaches in art history.
Perhaps this is why Michelangelo depicted David before the battle, strong-willed and ready to fight. Another Italian architect and sculptor, Bernini, born in Naples in , is widely considered the creator of the Baroque style of sculpture. Berninis David is a fine example of what the baroque style is defined as. Bernini sculpted his statue out of marble but unlike Michelangelo s, his David stands in a far more extreme contrapposto stance making the battle with Goliath more engaging and immersing us further into the story.
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Expanding upon the fascination Michelangelo had with the human body, Bernini added torsion to create a very dynamic figure that extends into the viewer's space. Davids face is tense and twisted as he exerts his strength. He is in the midst of fighting Goliath. Berninis David has a single viewpoint where one should be viewing it from the front side but the way he created movement in space suggests many other possible viewpoints for us as the audience. The main action of the piece can be seen, from one view, the front side and for this particular sculpture, at eyelevel for the viewer.
Consequently, the viewer is drawn into the story.
Art History Compare and Contrast Essay
From this point, Rudolf Wittkower says the action is homogeneous passing thru the leg, body, and neck, and counterbalanced by the turn of the head and the arm holding the stone in the sling. In Berninis David you get a sense of the whole story as his sculpture captures the moment in the middle of the battle but allows you to infer what else has happened and what might happen next. Berninis David interacts with its surroundings and even perhaps other characters.
Its part of the environment and there is a before and after to Davids story. Bernini is one of the greatest baroque artists and his father was a key player on his way to success. The elder Bernini had an opportunity to introduce his son, a child prodigy, to the Pope and the Pope's favorite nephew, Cardinal Scipione Borghese. The cardinal, a man of vast wealth with a real passion for art, was to become Bernini's first important patron. Bernini created the David sculpture for Cardinal Scipione Borghese. He sought to follow the story as closely as possible for the Cardinal and did so successfully.
Bernini was considered one of the greatest artists to represent the Baroque style. His sculptures were expansive, theatrical, and, the element of time plays an important role. His emotion-packed David seems to be moving through both time and space. In the Italian Baroque period this was known as the Baroque Moment, which was usually the most dramatic moment of a scene and one of the greatest artists to represent this style happens to be Bernini.
Both Michelangelo and Bernini had the chance to tell the story of David, a biblical hero in a sculpted piece of artwork.
Two Art Periods: Free Compare and Contrast Essay Sample
These two works of art are of David but taking a closer look tells us more about the stories each artist chose to represent. Even though Michelangelos David is so much greater in size and perhaps fame, Berninis powerful representation of the story and how it translates into his sculpture, makes up for its smaller scale.
In Michelangelos David, the body features represent the story. David s hands are proportionately larger, his face exudes determination, and he appears deep in preparation.
pierreducalvet.ca/129773.php Berninis sculpture of David uses a degree viewpoint and motion within the context of the location to tell the story. Berninis David draws its power from the movement, the facial expression, the context he is placed, and creates a character that is equally larger than life as is Michelangelos David, yet life size in its depiction. The story of David and Goliath is one that has been a source of material for great art and literature through out history because the story tells the victory of good over evil.
The way in which artists, such as Michelangelo and Bernini, depicted David reflects the style of them as an artist and as well as the period during which the artist worked. These two great Davids, though portrayed at significantly different moments of the same tale, are both able to portray strength, emotion, and, are each considered timeless masterpieces. Work cited "Bernini's David. White, Veronica. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Kleiner, Fred S. Read Free For 30 Days. Much more than documents.